Blog #3 Urban Architecture & Material Culture: Public Fountains (Stephanie Coles 113352066)

Trafalgar Square Fountains, London. (Accessed 03/09/15 from my own personal photo collection). The first fountains were constructed in in the 19th century (designed by Edward Lutyens). They were replaced by the two fountains seen in this image in 1939 as a memorial for John Rushworth Jellicoe and David Beatty who were admirals in the Royal Navy.

Figure.1 Trafalgar Square Fountains, London 2015.
(Accessed 03/09/15 from my own personal photo collection). The first fountains were constructed in in the 19th century (designed by Edwin Lutyens). They were replaced by the two fountains seen in this image in 1939 as a memorial for John Rushworth Jellicoe and David Beatty who were admirals in the Royal Navy.                                                                                                                                        

“‘Material culture’ has operated as a ‘litmus test’ to what is going on right now and what has gone before, spatially and temporally” (Tolia-Kelly, 2009). The public fountain is an example of this in the 19th century. The style of many fountains is based upon the dazzling and spectacular styles of Baroque which began in Rome and spread throughout Europe over time. The Baroque style of architecture expressed grandeur, exuberance, drama and awe, and the typical ‘modern’ concepts of beauty, control and power, and the connection to the magnificence of the Roman World emphasized this.

Trafalgar Square Fountains, London. (Accessed 03/09/15 from my own personal photo collection). The first fountains were constructed in in the 19th century (designed by Edward Lutyens). They were replaced by the two fountains seen in this image in 1939 as a memorial for John Rushworth Jellicoe and David Beatty who were admirals in the Royal Navy.

Figure.2 Trafalgar Square Fountains, London 2015.
(Accessed 03/09/15 from my own personal photo collection).
The first fountains were constructed in in the 19th century (designed by Edwin Lutyens). They were replaced by the two fountains seen in this image in 1939 as a memorial for John Rushworth Jellicoe and David Beatty who were admirals in the Royal Navy.

In the 19th century city public parks became a popular characteristic feature of modernity all over Europe, and with some of these parks came the public fountain. Fountains were constructed to be the center-piece of many gardens and public parks, to draw the eye of visitors and to create an appropriate space where one can sit with friends and chat or “accept their beauty with a wistful sigh, toss a coin, take a photo, and walk away” (Rinne, 2010). For example, King Louis XIV built fountains as the central pieces in the Garden a la Francaise  at the Palace of Versailles, depicting gods and goddess’s from Greek mythology as a way of symbolising his power as a ruler and  expressing man’s control over nature (which is another concept of ‘modernity’). From this example a class difference is also visible, as the fountain would be turned on to spray over the French peasants.

The George V memorial fountain, Windsor. (Accessed 05/09/15 from my own personal photo collection). This fountain was also designed by Edwin Lutyens, and was unveiled in 1937.

Figure.3 The George V memorial fountain, Windsor 2015. (Accessed 05/09/15 from my own personal photo collection). This fountain was also designed by Edwin Lutyens, and was unveiled in 1937.

Public fountains were not only constructed to create central beautiful spaces for the elite to socialize, they also had another purpose which was to memorialize someone or something. In figure.2, figure.3 and figure.4 each of these fountains were constructed to memorialize important figures, in these cases John Rushworth Jellicoe and David Beatty and Sergeant Walter Berwick. By using a fountain as a memorial symbol it also gave it an air of importance and would be respected by anyone, wealthy or peasant.

Berwick Fountain, Cork City. (Accessed 10/11/15 from my own personal photo collection). This public fountain was built in 1860 and named after Sergeant Walter Berwick and designed by Sir John Benson.

Figure.4 Berwick Fountain, Cork City 2015. (Accessed 10/11/15 from my own personal photo collection). This public fountain was built in 1860 and named after Sergeant Walter Berwick and designed by Sir John Benson.

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Blog #2 The 19th century ‘New Woman’:the impact of women cycling in the public sphere (Stephanie Coles 113352066)

Figure.1 Title: Women cyclists stopped at the side of the road in County Wicklow Photographer: Joshua Hargrave Archive: National Library of Ireland Catalogue Date: August 1895 Size: 9 x 9cm

Figure.1
Title: Women cyclists stopped at the side of the road in County Wicklow
Photographer: Joshua Hargrave
Archive: National Library of Ireland Catalogue
Date: August 1895
Size: 9 x 9cm

The 19th century was a time of rigidly defined gender roles and emphasized separation between the public spaces of activity for men and women in the city. In this century women were finally making headway into creating their own spaces in a male dominated and patriarchal public sphere. The bicycle was a new experience that characterized the city in this period.

Figure.2 Title: Street scenes, Long Island City. Photographer: Byron Company Date: 1898 Archive: Museum of the City of New York Size: 8 x 10in

Figure.2
Title: Street scenes, Long Island City.
Photographer: Byron Company
Date: 1898
Archive: Museum of the City of New York
Size: 8 x 10in

“The emergence of a new stable and easy to ride ‘safety bicycle’ (see Figure.4) provided women with a chance for mobility, increased independence and freedom from the confine of her home”(Jones, 2012). The bicycle allowed for movement into new public spaces. The bicycle had a profound impact on the public sphere, by causing a change in the female fashion at the time (which challenged the traditional gender norms) and providing a new found freedom and liberation for women. The men of this period did not accept this change in the public sphere easily, and began to delineate themselves in terms of physical prowess, and trying to include cycling as a male dominated form of activity. Even so, the bicycle remained a symbol of freedom and self control. “The women of the 19th century who had been given little opportunity to cultivate or express her autonomy now had a vessel with which one could not only develop autonomous power, but do so while leaving behind the old reliance upon men for travel” (Hendrick, 2009).

 

Figure.3 Title: Portrait of a handsome young woman posing next to a bicycle in parlour of a home, Pasadena. Photographer: C.C. Pierce Archive: USC Libraries Special Collections Date: 1890 Microfiche number: 1-101

Figure.3
Title: Portrait of a handsome young woman posing next to a bicycle in parlour of a home, Pasadena.
Photographer: C.C. Pierce
Archive: USC Libraries Special Collections
Date: 1890
Microfiche number: 1-101

With the arrival of the bicycle in the public sphere came with it the term ‘the New Woman’ which was used to describe “the modern woman who broke with convention by working outside the home, or eschewed the traditional role of wife and mother”(Zheutlin, 2006). Bicycle manufacturers empowered this term by aligning their bicycles with images of feminine and graceful ladies in their new cycling fashion which ceased any arguments of sexual impropriety.The bicycle was a tool of women’s personal and political power, and stated by Frances Willard (1991) “the bicycle had done more to emancipate women than anything else in the world”.

 

Figure.4 Title: Lady's Bicycle (3 speed gear and dynamo lighting) Author: John Player & Sons Archive: George Arents Collection, The New York Public Library Digital Collections

Figure.4
Title: Lady’s Bicycle (3 speed gear and dynamo lighting)
Author: John Player & Sons
Archive: George Arents Collection, The New York Public Library Digital Collections

Figure.5 Title: Manhattan: Harlem River Drive- Dyckman Street Photographer: Ewing Galloway Date: 1897 Archive: The New York Public Library Digital Collections

Figure.5
Title: Manhattan: Harlem River Drive- Dyckman Street
Photographer: Ewing Galloway
Date: 1897
Archive: The New York Public Library Digital Collections

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Blog #1 Emergence of Modernity in Vienna in the 18th and 19th centuries- (Stephanie Coles 113352066)

New and accurate main plan of the Key. Main and residential city Wienn (Vienna). Publishing Details: Wien : I. W. Heckenaer, [between 1739 and 1750] http://mapy.mzk.cz/en/mzk03/001/042/764/2619265945_00_01/

Map 1: New and accurate main plan of the Key. Main and residential city Wienn (Vienna).
Publishing Details: Wien : I. W. Heckenaer, [between 1739 and 1750] (accessed 4/10/15)

Map 1. depicts an 18th century historical map of Vienna when the medieval wall still surrounded the city. Most of Vienna was reconstructed during the 18th century after the Turkish Sieges of 1529 and 1683, and at this time ideas of modernity- ideas of beauty, control and order- began to take root in all parts of Europe. A good example of the emergence of modernity in Vienna at this time can be seen from the appearance of Palais, which were garden palaces that the nobility began to cover the surrounding landscape with, and created a new kind of public space, much like the public gardens of London.

Wien (Vienna) Published by: Bibliographischen Instituts, Hildburghausen, (1844) http://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/detail/RUMSEY~8~1~21893~680049:Wien-?sort=Pub_List_No_InitialSort&qvq=q:vienna;sort:Pub_List_No_InitialSort;lc:RUMSEY~8~1&mi=71&trs=818

Map 2: Wien (Vienna)
Published by: Bibliographischen Instituts, Hildburghausen, (1844) (accessed 4/10/15)

Map 2. shows a 19th century historical map of Vienna. By 1827, utopian notions became the normal way of building cities in Vienna. At this point in time, Vienna was turned into a Baroque city. Baroque began in Rome and spread to most of Europe. Baroque art style is another example of the emergence of modernity in Vienna, as this architecture expressed grandeur, exuberance, drama and tension, and the aristocracy saw this architecture as a way of impressing visitors of Vienna and expressing power, order and control.

Map 3. depicts Vienna after the city destroyed and expanded beyond its medieval wall in the 1850s. At this point in time, Vienna would have had the first orderly and beautiful boulevards in Europe, which can be clearly seen from the map, and were a new kind of public space in Vienna. The existing Public Parks at this time are highlighted on this map in red. The first ring-road- the Ringstrasse- was constructed in 1827, and along this boulevard the aristocracy built beautiful palaces. In Schottering, an area where the wall once stood, more new public spaces were created in the form of galleries, boutiques, shops, and apartments for the wealthy. The new town hall and parliament building were built at the heart of the city in classical Palladion design. Vienna became a global influence.

The city of Vienna. Published by: Letts's popular atlas. Letts, Son & Co. Limited, London. (1883). http://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/detail/RUMSEY~8~1~31331~1150354:Vienna-?sort=Pub_List_No_InitialSort&qvq=q:vienna;sort:Pub_List_No_InitialSort;lc:RUMSEY~8~1&mi=75&trs=818

Map 3: The city of Vienna.
Published by: Letts’s popular atlas. Letts, Son & Co. Limited, London. (1883). (accessed 4/10/15)

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